week 2.3 discussion responses




Noel 2.2


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Article Title :  “Integrating Object Relations and Alcoholics Anonymous Principles in the Treatment of Schizoid Personality Disorder and Co-Occurring Alcohol Dependence”

Main Hypothesis :   Individuals with the Schizoid condition and co-occurring substance abuse disorders would benefit from 12-step integration in their mental health treatment.  This is a  directional hypothesis   as the author presents a positive correlation between the individual’s mental health therapy and integration of 12-step principles, as outlined in Alcoholics Anonymous. 

Variables :

Dependent Variable –   Individual’s co-occurring conditions  (Schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) and co-occurring substance abuse disorder)

Independent Variable –   The mental health therapy and 12-step principles of Alcoholic Anonymous

Operational Definitions :

Schizoid personality disorder (SZPD)  is one of the least researched and most difficult to treat of the personality disorders.  As a result, Schizoids live in near-total social isolation and rarely participate in research or therapy.  Their gross impairment in sociability also makes it exceedingly difficult to maintain relationships, and is associated with risk for health problems, substance abuse, and harm to self and others. (Danzer, 2015)

Object Relations Theory  posits that a safe holding environment must be provided and maintained in order to facilitate the human development of the client through meeting their underlying dependency needs, which then becomes a corrective experience. (Mitchell and Black, 1995)

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)  is a 12-step peer support group based on spiritual principles, which through the fellowship of individuals with a common condition and the practice of these principles, achieve freedom from alcohol and/or drug dependence. 

Conceptual Definition :   The author used the Object Relations theory to conceptualize the individual’s need for optimal distance-connection, which he intuitively maintained by initiating dialogues about the individual’s involvement in the Alcoholics Anonymous program.




Wittmeier 2.2


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Article Title:  The Benefits of Mindfulness Meditation: Changes in Emotional States of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

Hypothesis:  Mindfulness training helps reduce depression, anxiety, and stress.

The Hypothesis is Non-Directional:  I believe that the hypothesis is non-directional, because the research predicted depression, anxiety, and stress would be reduced. However, unlike with a directional hypothesis, the non-directional hypothesis did not predict which group (depression, anxiety, stress) would be higher or lower after the ten-week mindfulness training class. The hypothesis focused on the changes of emotional state between depression, anxiety, and stress rather than determining which of the emotional states through mindfulness meditation had higher and/or lower changes of emotion.

Independent Variable:  Mindfulness Training

Dependent Variable:  Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

Operational Definitions:

1.       Mindfulness Training:  Participants attended a ten-week meditation course at two meditation centers

2.       Meditation:  There were forty-three participants that participated in the study weekly for two hour sessions; focused on ‘meditation as a form of relaxation’ (Malcom & Schreiner, 2008 p. 160)

3.       Depression, Anxiety, and Stress:  Scores on the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21), on a twenty-one self-report


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