Leroy goes to his local Dr with complaints of severe pain in his left patella (kneecap) along with ankylosis (stiffness). The patient had been experiencing claudication(limping) before his Dr visit. During his examination begins to experience angina ( chest pain) that runs down his left deltoid ( shoulder muscle). The patient does have a family history of arthritis (joint diseases). The had notice contracture( fibrosis of connective tissue) when bending the patient leg. The Dr. thought the patient may have gout (joint inflammation) in his left knee. The patient explains that when getting up from sitting a long time he hears a crepitation ( grating sound) in his knee. The patient was asked about any asthenia (weakness,) in his leg. After, examining and listening to the patient the Dr. ordered a few tests for the patient. A bone density test (bone densitometry), blood work, EKG(recording of the heart) ( because of angina), and an arthroscopy( visual examination of the interior of a joint). After, reading the patient’s test he was diagnosed with Osteoarthritis ( known as a degenerative joint disease (DJD)). He has prescribed a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), (decrease pain and suppress inflammation), muscle relaxants ( relieve muscle spasms and stiffness).
Youlanda a 45-year-old female goes to the ER complaining of pharyngitis (sore throat), and severe gastralgia (stomachache.) before her visit she had emesis (vomit). She also complains of trouble swallowing when food going down her esophagus (is a tube that connects the throat (pharynx) and experiencing anorexia (lack or loss of appetite ). She said while bending at times she feels severe pain in her upper right quadrant ( near the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas). A few weeks ago she was diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus). Her mother was diagnosed with Crohn disease (a form of inflammatory bowel disease). During her examine the Dr. notice halitosis ( Foul-smelling breath) coming from her mouth. The Dr. asked when she emesis ( vomit) were there any hematemesis (vomiting of blood). After, her examination the Dr order some tests on the patients they were
A 24 -year old female was brought into the ER with abnormal breath sounds ( Abnormal sounds or noises heard over the lungs and airways) wheeze ( Whistling or sighing that results from the narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway), and anosmia ( Absence of the sense of smell). As the nurse begins to check the patients’ vital signs the patient nose starts epistaxis ( nosebleed). After placing the oximetry (Noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin) on her finger she starts to show signs of low oxygen. She had stated that she was diagnosed with having pulmonary edema (Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli,) a few months ago. During her examination, the nurse notices crackle (Intermittent sounds caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli;) and stridor ( High-pitched, harsh sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway) in her voice when she speaks. After reading of the nurse notes the Dr ordered a few tests on the patient they were pulmonary function tests (PFTs) ( tests to aid in the diagnosis of lung diseases), arterial blood gas (ABG) ( Test that measures dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood), chest x-ray (CXR) ( Radiographic test that aids in identifying lung conditions such as pneumonia, lung cancer, COPD, and pneumothorax) and a computed tomography pulmonary angiography ( Minimally invasive imaging that combines computed tomography scanning and angiography to produce images of the pulmonary arteries). After reading the test results the Dr found that the patient has a pulmonary embolism (Blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, tissue, air bubbles, and bacteria) that has traveled to the lungs from another part of the body.) She was prescribed a blood thinner ( medicine to dissolve the PE) a bronchodilator ( Stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, thereby expanding air passages, resulting in increased airflow0 for the wheezing.